- Both adrafinil and modafinil are modern nootropic stimulants that stimulate the abilities of our mind and temporarily relieve fatigue and sleepiness.
- These substances are similar to each other and produce virtually the same effects, but differ in some important respects.
- Below is a comparison.
- LET'S START WITH THE BEGINNINGS: EUGEROIK OVERVIEW
- Adrafinil and modafinil are considered to be eugeroics, agents that promote alertness and insomnia, whose mechanism of action is based on the induction of mental arousal. This distinguishes them from traditional stimulants such as caffeine and amphetamines, which promote alertness by increasing the physiological or nervous activity of the entire body.
- Eugeroics are a relatively new class of drugs, invented in the 1970s to treat narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. Their action is much more specific than that of other stimulants - they primarily affect the brain's chemical systems in the hypothalamus, not the entire nervous system.
- Since their effects are not based on increased psychomotor activity, eugeroics act gradually, deliver energy more gently and exhaust their effects more gently than other stimulants. This eliminates the arousal and euphoria effects associated with amphetamines and the recurrent exhaustion characteristic of stimulant-induced sleep deprivation.
- The brain-specific mechanisms of action that allow eugeroics to increase alertness also make them extremely effective cognitive enhancers.
- They have become very popular "smart drugs", used illegally by students, shift workers and others interested in extending the time of alertness, increasing energy and performing tasks at the highest cognitive level.
- Numerous studies have confirmed that both adrafinil and modafinil show powerful nootropic potential, improving cognitive skills, memory and humor .
- Eugeroics are invaluable in treating sleep disorders such as narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, and shift work disorders because they are effective in preventing excessive daytime sleepiness without overacting or interfering with the regular sleep pattern.
- Brain Fuel
- Supplement with Modafinil
- Both adrafinil and modafinil cause less nervousness and anxiety than other stimulants, and studies show that they exhibit a limited risk of tolerance and addiction that characterize long-used, unapproved traditional stimulants.
- Side effects of adrafinil and modafinil that are commonly reported include anxiety, insomnia, headaches, indigestion, and dry mouth. These side effects can be short-term and temporary, but if they persist or worsen, the user should consult a specialist.
- There have also been reports of serious side effects such as abnormal heart rhythms and spikes in blood pressure, but these were not common and were not associated with a moderate dose for short use.
- When ingested, adrafinil is metabolized in the liver, where it is converted into the active metabolite we know as modafinil, and the remainder is metabolized into the inactive modafinil acid.
- Since adrafinil is a precursor to modafinil, both drugs have the same mechanism of action and very similar benefits and effects.
- Mechanism of Action: Both adrafinil and modafinil selectively activate neurons in the hypothalamus and amygdala, increasing the production of orexin / hypocretin, which is largely responsible for alertness. This action also increases the levels of histamine and norepinephrine, contributing to arousal and at the same time increasing the availability of glutamate, an important excitatory neurotransmitter that is important for memory, executive function and general cognition.
- Adrafinil and modafinil also increase the levels of dopamine used by the brain. Dopamine is a neurotransmitter responsible for the feeling of pleasure / reward, and increasing amounts of it play a major role in improving mood by directly stimulating dopamine release, and eugeroics increase dopamine availability by blocking the nerve receptors that remove dopamine from the system. The gradual and somewhat indirect effect on the dopaminergic system makes adrafinil / modafinil much less addictive than other stimulants.
- Benefits and Effects: Both adrafinil and modafinil are extremely effective in inducing alertness, increasing alertness, inhibiting sleepiness, delaying the onset of fatigue, and reducing the perception of fatigue. Research has shown that eugeroics are actually more effective than methamphetamine in suppressing sleepiness , resulting in a more consolidated arousal time without extreme subsequent sleepiness as with other stimulants.
- Adrafinil and modafinil also demonstrate a measurable ability to improve a range of cognitive abilities , from improving working memory and intelligence to improving spatial and episodic memory, pattern recognition, executive functions, and performing tasks that require higher-level thinking. Clinical studies have confirmed that eugeroics improve mood , and new research suggests that adrafinil / modafinil may have neuroprotective properties  that contribute to overall brain health.
- Although both adrafinil and modafinil are safe and well tolerated, it is important to remember that long-term daily use is inadvisable.
- Modafinil should be taken as directed by a physician, and adrafinil should be used on an ad hoc basis rather than as a daily nootropic regimen.
- ADRAFINIL - MODAFINIL: DIFFERENCES
- Although adrafinil and modafinil appear to be identical in many respects, there are some important differences between the two.
- Strength and dosage: Modafinil is much more potent than adrafinil and requires lower doses to achieve the same level of effectiveness. This difference is due to the fact that not all adrafinil is fully converted to modafinil. For example, a typical therapeutic dose of modafinil ranges from 100 mg to 200 mg, although doses up to 400 mg per day are also popular. Adrafinil doses range from 300 to 600 mg on average, but doses of up to 900 mg are also sometimes used.
- Onset, Half-Life and Duration of Effects: Modafinil works much faster than adrafinil, which has to be processed by the liver before it can work. Modafinil is essentially at its peak in the blood after just 60-90 minutes, while for adrafinil this time can take up to an hour longer. The half-life of modafinil can be up to 14 hours, and of adrafinil about 5 hours.
- Toxicity: Since adrafinil must be metabolized in the liver, it has the potential to be toxic with prolonged use. While elevated liver enzymes are often associated with adrafinil ingestion, actual reports of liver toxicity are rare and associated with prolonged high-dose use.
- Legal Status: One of the most important differences between the two eugeroics is their legal status. Although both adrafinil and modafinil have been banned as doping agents by the World Anti-Doping Agency, adrafinil is currently not fully regulated and is available over the counter in most countries. Modafinil is on the list of controlled substances (Schedule IV) in the United States and cannot legally be purchased over the counter in most countries, including the US, Canada, and European countries.
- How Much Costs: Adrafinil costs much less than Modafinil, which can be amazingly expensive. Depending on the pharmacy, modafinil can cost over $ 300 for 20 tablets in the US, and from about PLN 250 in Poland. . Adrafinil is widely available at a fraction of the cost of modafinil.
- WHICH IS RIGHT FOR YOU?
- From a purely practical point of view, adrafinil is usually the better option for all users for a number of reasons.
- First of all, adrafinil is unregulated and can be legally purchased over the counter. Modafinil is a controlled substance and purchasing it without a prescription is illegal in Poland and many other countries around the world.
- How does Modafinil work?
- Modafinil is a stimulant. The substance is currently approved in dozens of European countries, but the indications for use in the Member States vary. It is also registered in the US and many other countries outside the EU. The only indication approved in all EU Member States is somnolence related to narcolepsy. Modafinil is a drug for narcolepsy (a neurological disease characterized by, among other things, excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep attacks). The causes of the disease are not fully understood and it is a relatively rare disease. A genetic background is suspected. But not about that. The most important thing is that the drug works and it also works very well for healthy people!
- I checked modafinil from a physician's perspective and the ability to prescribe this drug to patients. For clarity Dear Reader: Prescription only (see acronym Rx). However, this does not bother all those who, not having narcolepsy, want to purchase this drug. It is sold for power on the black market in online pharmacies (India, USA, Philippines - in random order).
- Patients' reports show that the effects are stunningly good. Rumors clearly indicate that this drug is used by the CEOs of publicly traded companies, athletes, show businessmen, poker players, athletes, President Obama and ordinary bread eaters who have gotten tired of cheating on a daily vitamin set, specially designed for the sexes ...
- How to get it?
- Buying a drug in a foreign online pharmacy seems and is dangerous. The preparation was once available in Poland in the form of a drug called Vigil (according to historical data it cost PLN 1600 for 30 tablets). In Poland, in the so-called farmindexes (drug databases available to doctors) with the entry "modafinil" the message is clear: "No brand names or substances found". Since the drug was withdrawn from the market, I decided to send an official inquiry to the company that used to distribute this drug in Poland and contacted experts treating narcolepsy from the Sleep Medicine Center of the Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology in Warsaw.
- I was able to determine that modafinil was registered in Poland, but after 10 years, due to fruitless attempts to include the drug on the reimbursement list, its distribution was abandoned. It has not been on the Polish market for over 3 years. It can be imported as part of target import with an individual refund.
- So how are patients suffering from narcolepsy treated?
- Therefore, other substances (also used in the treatment of ADHD), such as methylphenidate, are used to treat narcolepsy. Patients who have contraindications to the use of methylphenidate, in turn, and must receive our miracle drug, receive modafinil in this way (target import) by the Ministry of Health. In Western Europe and the USA, modafinil is obviously most commonly used in narcolepsy patients. As you can see in Poland, even with the "miracle drugs" there is a problem. It seems that obtaining a drug in Poland is not only impossible for healthy people, but also for those suffering from narcolepsy. Why has such an effective treatment been excluded from the palette of recommendations of sleep disorders doctors, psychiatrists and neurologists? It is not known.
Discover the Benefits of Modalert
If you are looking for the latest gadget which may keep your personal computer or notebook running you need to strive Modalert PC backup software. There are lots of reasons. Keep reading to find out more about this effective software that could provide benefits.
For the men and women who do not have small disk space in their computers, Modalert can be a terrific option. You may find that you save a good deal of time and money by backing up your documents and folders. Many people state until their computers run from memory, that they frequently run out of disc space.
You may utilize Modalert to recover Whenever you've got a sudden system crash. The program is able to recover the file without causing any damage to your PC. Additionally, it makes it possible to get back what the user deleted.
Since they're attempting to replicate their hard drives men and women lose information, but they do not understand how to perform it properly. You can purchase a copy of the drive to your PC. These drives may be used to protect your hard disk.
Modalert can be utilised in conjunction. It can create two copies of your hard disk files and it will backup those files. The copies can be transferred to other computers. using the app you can back up the data.
To use Modalert that you will first need to install it in your computer. It is possible to locate this piece of software at a number of different sites. Make certain that you are currently using the right version on your computer, and then you can begin installing it.
The very best thing about Modalert isthat it can make it possible for you to look at your computer whenever you want. It can be used by you even if your computer isn't on. This software is installed in the registry.
The registry is where information is saved for all the hardware that your computer gets. It's also where operating system settings and all the applications settings are stored. Then it can cause problems for your computer if any of these settings is wrong.
The only way to be able to detect the issue is to recognize the hardware that's causing the issues. By taking a look at the registry, then you will be able to spot the problem. When you can repair the issue, then the difficulties in your computer will be eliminated.
If you start to see registry entries when you're attempting to perform a task, then it might be a sign of a hardware problem. But, it is possible that the entries are only part of regular activity on your computer. In any event, Modalert will help you make the issue go away.
This software's purpose is to backup your computer's registry. It is important to backup all the important files, whenever you are doing tasks on your computer. You can keep all your files protected from viruses that may destroy your hard disk and secure when you backup your registry.
Cost varies according to the amount of features that it provides. Be sure to check the cost per attribute and the purchase price of each attribute. You can always use the world wide web to obtain the attributes that are best and the best price. If you don't have enough time to read the testimonials about the product you could stop by this product to learn what others are saying about its website.
The Real Deal on Modalert Online
Modalert is one of the leading software companies in the world these days. Its products are an significant part the computer protection toolbox, and its software has been used by tens of thousands of consumers within the previous few decades.
However, there are concerns expressed that some of the softwares are not as effective as they are claimed to be. A certain quantity of confusion surrounds the problem of"bogus Modalert" softwares which do not comprise all of the tools required to protect a computer from malware and viruses.
Therefore, it is necessary that you understand just what is intended by the word"imitation Modalert" and how you are able to recognize the a variety of article out there that claim to be of a similar look and be the authentic item. That is of fantastic importance if you plan on buying the item, that you understand.
So as to fully understand this dilemma, first you have to know what it implies for your item to be"fake" or for this to be a"genuine copy". These terms are not defined from the softwares themselves, which make it hard for many users to work out the actual differences between Modalert and real product.
As such, you need to read of the information available about the item before you purchase it, in order to ensure it is the real thing rather than a version of another's software. You should not settle for anything less than the product that is real, even if it means spending money price.
Since so many individuals do not want to squander their cash on something that may not be able to protect their computers from malware and viruses, it's important to make sure that the merchandise being marketed is real and can indeed contain all of the tools required to shield your computer from viruses and malware. Because they aren't much different from the others in their own functionality in fact, this has become the most important concern about Modalert's softwares.
Most of the fake Modalert programs are offered in such low prices that anybody can readily be duped into believing they are buying software. This is why when you purchase them it is extremely important to inspect the softwares, so as to make certain you are purchasing a software at an affordable price.
The trickiest aspect with these softwares is that it is extremely easy to generate a Modalert online. If you are unsure about any particular company that is online, you can check for these attributes:
The two characteristics mentioned previously are the best ways to tell whether a site is a true source for imitation softwares or not. However, it's still possible to find"imitation" Modalert softwares for sale in any reputable store online.
One way is to consider the website which sell it, as well as the qualities of the program itself. For example, you can find out if a computer software is by taking a look at the list of attributes contained in the program real.
All the programs sold by Modalert online have the exact same virus protection attributes, which means that you can find one without difficulty. You will have to know to get the maximum from your softwares that are new.
The most important issue is to always ensure that you are currently purchasing the Modalert online. The organization itself has built a good reputation for itself and should not be deceived by counterfeit softwares.
Purchase Modalert Supplements
Using the world wide web to purchase Modalert is as easy as getting a fantastic search. Online stores can be used have shipped directly to your property, and to find exactly what you're looking for. You may add to your Modalert dietary menu by adding a few lettuce, or to your juices a little bit of guava, or even pumpkin. With these new developments you'll soon realize that you're committing yourself much more options for weight loss and health.
Modalert has a flavor and can be sweetened with Stevia, which gives an wonderful taste to it. It also is low in fat and high in fiber.
When compared to others, Thus far, no other diet pill has come near this in affordability and quality. Modalert is designed. But, it is a fiber-rich diet supplement and not just any diet pill. It had been designed to assist you control your blood glucose and control your appetite.
Some individuals might think this particular diet pill is intense. It's side effects, but the side effects are like the consequences of java, and they're considered to be minimal. Besides caffeine, which can make you feel tired, there are not any long term side effects.
Reviews are provided about users of the product, not and online. Consumers of Modalert have complained of headaches and problems . But, one thing that has always bothered me is is you. It is totally up to you how many capsules you take each day.
It is also one of the most talked about goods on the Internet, in forums and by consumers, there are various sources for buying Modalert. Reviews are given by people who have tried it, plus they provide ratings. Most users don't have any issues. It's not addictive, but it helps you lose weight, and it gives you all of the minerals and vitamins you need.
If they tell you to take more than you 18, you must always follow your doctor's orders. You won't have any issues, if you do that. You could get hooked on it, by taking in a larger volume of Modalert. It is really hard to say you will not be getting hooked, if you're carrying a larger amount of it.
Exercise is important, but take it a day at a time. You can have a small dose once or twice per day, and you won't overdose on the nutritional supplement. But, if you are likely to increase the dose you may end up getting hooked on it. That is taking it gradually is recommended.
As the time period in order for it to begin working is a couple weeks, you should not attempt and take too much at once. It does not make sense to get Modalert to eliminate weight. The reason for this is there are numerous things that need to be performed before you'll lose any weight. Until you perform your job, taking this supplement for a short time, may increase your energy level, and cause you to want to eat more.
Different people have different preferences. When you include ingredients you may like it . Thus, when you're on the market for a diet supplement, you need to shop around and see what's available.
Since it will make it worse, don't try Modalert with a stomachache. Ensure you take the dose at the time period. Should you do that, it should be okay.
Do yourself a favor, and buy Modalert should you would like to lose weight. By doing so, you will enjoy the added advantage of weight loss and better energy.
The Luxury and Sophistication of a Inexpensive Modalert
Buy wall clocks that are Modalert that are cheap and increase the look of your home. Modalert wall clocks are created from a kind of wood.
They're an exquisitely made and fashion accessory. Modalert designer clocks comprise finishes that make them warm, soft and eye-catching. This is one of the most popular clock designs today.
With Modalert clocks, you receive something not only classy but timeless as well. You'll find collections that provide you choices as beveled glass bezel accents, gold, as well as endings that are other to mention a few. As for what sorts of materials they're crafted from, the selections are immense and you will find anything you want.
There are wood, bamboo, fiberglass, synthetic or plastic materials, if you want to get some of the most and the best choices. It's going to have the same quality and feel that these clocks are capable of offering, regardless of what it is made from, if the wood is mahogany, ebony, cherry, rosewood, wenge, white walnut or any other form.
A Modalert with a delicate crystal is perfect to display on your coffee table at night when you put your head down to sleep or use. Or you could just select a set that comes in a wooden box and display it on the mantelpiece. It is so gorgeous and special that no one will be able to dismiss it.
However, for those who are ready to look for a Modalert that is affordable, it is recommended that you find it in a hardware shop that is trusted. Since the popularity of the Modalert is much higher than the supplies to accommodate it, you can also look at looking online.
Most manufacturers have a wide selection of clocks for you to choose from, so do your homework before you start shopping to make sure that you'll purchase the right model for your needs. Here are some of the characteristics that different manufacturers offer.
This clock's plan is your mechanism, which enables the clock to be readily taken apart and will save you money in the long term. The hands screw mechanism is sturdy enough to last for many decades. It is highly recommended.
Since this watch is meant for use, you can expect the functions of the watch to be rather practical, together with the primary purposes being to provide time and information, and to keep valuable information. Its lightweight design makes it a great choice for people who wish to take their view where they move.
The main reason why you must buy a Modalert is because of its luxury appeal. You're getting what you're searching for when choosing a clock, whether it's in a luxury boutique or on the internet. With contemporary styles that you can get the fashion of clocks with a Modalert.
Aside from being very elegant, you can find pieces which include beeswax, ruffles, bells, chimes faceplates, straps, cell phone accessories and more. All the accessories are priced fairly, making it much easier for you to find everything you need.
Therefore, in case you would like to enjoy a Modalert's elegance you've arrived at the right location. Order online and you'll be astounded by the abundance of designs out there.
Curbside Pickup & Mailing
To utilize curbside pickup, please follow the steps below:
- The designated pharmacy spots in the Eisenhower parking deck will have a dedicated phone number posted for patients to call when in the garage waiting.
- A customer service representative will then deliver the prescription to the vehicle.
- All prescription costs/or copays will be placed on accounts and the patient will receive bills in the mail to avoid the exchange of money or credit cards.
For staff and faculty that receive prescriptions via campus mail, and may be working remotely at home, should call the UHS Pharmacy at 814-865-9321 to change their mailing address to their home address. Please note that Schedule II narcotics cannot be mailed.
We will be working with CVS Caremark and Highmark (Express Scripts) to temporarily override the “refill too soon” rejection for 30-day prescriptions to ensure that all faculty, staff, and non-Medicare retirees enrolled in either the Aetna PPO Plan or the Aetna PPO Savings Plan will have adequate supplies of medication.
We encourage patients to refill maintenance medications with a 90-day supply or up to the plan maximum. The curbside service will be offered Monday through Friday from 8 AM to 5 PM until further notice. For questions, please call the UHS Pharmacy at 814-865-9321.
First-Time Pharmacy Customers
First-time pharmacy customers should complete the Pharmacy Employee/Retiree Enrollment Form and submit it along with, or prior to, their first prescription order.
The Pharmacy Employee/Retiree Enrollment Form can be dropped off at the pharmacy during regular business hours, or mailed to:
202 Student Health Center
University Park, PA 16802
If you have a new prescription(s) that needs to be filled, please attach it to the form. After your first prescription has been filled you will be able to use one of our easy prescription refill options.
Filling a New Prescription
The Pharmacy will fill written, original prescriptions. You may bring your prescription to the pharmacy service window, have your clinician fax it to the pharmacy at 814-863-5371, or mail it to the pharmacy.
Refilling a Prescription
Need a prescription refilled? If you already have a prescription on file at University Health Services Pharmacy, we offer several convenient ways to request refills.
- Refills by Phone: You can phone in your refill request 24/7 through our automated refill system. Just call 814-865-9321 and press "3." Be sure to have your prescription refill number handy - it is located on the left corner of the label.
- Refills Online: You can submit a prescription refill request online 24/7.
- Mobile App: Download the mobileRX app from the App Store or Google Play and search for UHS Pharmacy using telephone number 814-865-9321
We offer three convenient delivery options for Penn State employees. You may pick up your prescriptions in-person, have them delivered to your campus address, or have them delivered directly to your home address.
- Campus Delivery: Have your prescriptions delivered to your campus address for free! There is no charge for current Penn State employees to mail prescriptions to a Penn State campus address; this includes Penn State employees at Cooperative Extension offices. Please be sure to provide your current campus address.
- Home Delivery: For a flat $3.00 shipping and handling fee, you can have your prescriptions mailed to your home address (PA & FL addresses only). The price is the same no matter how many medications are in the package. Consolidating all your medications into one order is a great way to save money! Please allow up to 14 business days for home delivery.
In-person Pick Up: If you choose to pick up your prescriptions in-person, they will be ready within two business days. The pharmacy generally experiences less traffic before 11:30 a.m. View pharmacy hours and location for parking information.
Mailing Restrictions: We will not mail certain medications, including Adderall, Concerta, Dexedrine, Oxycontin, Duragesic, Percocet/Percodan, Ritalin, Metadate CD, and their generic equivalents and other CII narcotics.
Save with Maintenance Prescriptions
When medicine is prescribed for a chronic condition and must be taken on a regular, recurring basis, that medication is classified as a maintenance drug.
Penn State employees enrolled in the PPO Insurance Plan pay only a 20 percent co-insurance on 90-day supplies of many popular maintenance drugs (a cost savings of nearly 30 percent vs. 30-day retail pricing). 90-day supplies are also available with the PPO Savings Plan and alternate insurance--please inquire for pricing.
Maintenance medication refills will be filled within 2 days.
A formulary is a preferred list of medications that encourages the use of the most clinically-effective and cost-effective medications. Aetna maintains the formulary, (a list of covered drugs) that applies to both retail and maintenance programs.
Generic drugs will be substituted for brand-name drugs. A generic drug is one that meets the same FDA standards for safety as a brand name drug, is therapeutically equivalent to a brand name drug, and has the same active ingredients in the same amounts. Using generic medications, when available helps you minimize out-of-pocket expenses.
Pharmacy services can be paid by cash, check, or credit card. Pharmacy patrons may also set up a charge account with the University Health Services Pharmacy and pay off their billing statements monthly.